June22013
neuromorphogenesis:

 Foetal stem cells repair spinal cord injury in rats
A study has been published showing how injecting foetal neural cells into the damaged spinal cords of rats led to a marked regeneration of the neural pathways.
According to a team from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues in the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Slovakia, once cells extracted from the foetal spinal cord were grafted on to the damaged region, links between the injected cells and existing ones developed and debilitating muscle spasms subsided.
“The primary benefits were improvement in the positioning and control of paws during walking tests and suppression of muscle spasticity,” said Martin Marsala, a professor in UC San Diego’s department of Anesthesiology and coauthor on the paper, publishedin the Stem Cell Research and Therapy  journal online. “We have also demonstrated that grafted neurons can develop contacts with the host neurons and, to some extent, restore the connectivity between centres, above and below the injury, which are involved in motor and sensory processing.”
The rats were injured three days prior to treatment, with a circular rod used to compress the L3 vertebra for 15 minutes. Damage to the L3 is associated most commonly with herniated discs and is a hot spot for chronic back pain in humans. Mice that received the graft also received immunosuppressants for the duration (they died two months later, in a “planned sacrifice”) and the grafts were stained with immunofluorescence so it was clear where the original tissue began and ended. The subjects were then monitored for any improvements in movement — noting things like gait and ability to climb ladders — and frequency of muscle spasms during computer-controlled ankle rotations.
Although there wasn’t any improvement of note when it came to things like the ladder climbing test, muscle spasms did significantly subside, normal heat and pain sensitivities returned and the rats appeared to have better control over their paws. Perhaps more significantly, the team came away with physical evidence of the regeneration with MRI scans picking up the immunofluorescent stem cell grafts and showing how they had filled the hole in the spinal region left by the rod damage, with the “development of putative GABA-ergic synapses between grafted and host neurons”. 
Although the study provided significant results, the team ultimately wants to opt-out of using embryonic spinal stem cells. This is not because of the inevitable moral questions that arise from using foetal cells, but because in an ideal world we don’t want to be administering immunosuppressants — the only way of avoiding that is to use cells produced by our own bodies. This could be achieved by using pluripotent stem cells from patients, then turning them into neural precursors. Making sure these cells are stable enough to insert into a human spinal cord is key to the therapy being taken forward, but there are already plans to take the study up a notch with human trials involving patients with injuries between T2 and T12 that have no motor or sensory functions below the injury. It’s also already being done elsewhere in the world.
StemCells Inc has been using human neural stem cells derived from adult tissue — known as HuCNS-SC cells (an engineered cell devised by the company) — in small trials on patients suffering from severe spinal cord injuries. After six months, sensory functions had begun to return in two of the three patients involved in the trial, with those improvements persisting for the duration of the year-long trial.
“Between the six- and 12-month evaluations, one patient converted from a complete to an incomplete injury,” said Armin Curt, professor at the Spinal Cord Injury Centre at Balgrist University Hospital in Zurich, where the trial took place. “While much more clinical research needs to be done to demonstrate efficacy, the types of changes we are observing are unexpected and very encouraging given that these are patients in the chronic stage of complete spinal injury.”  
Unlike the rat study, the Zurich trial is not however a controlled clinical study and took in just those three patients. Nevertheless, the results are astounding and show great promise for using a patient’s own cells one day in the future.
Elsewhere this week, a team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine has announced it has managed to induce improved muscle function in rats with a model of terminal motor neurone disease ALS, using adult stem cells from human bone marrow. The cells were once again engineered to fulfill a specific function — in this case the team wanted them to promote regrowth of damaged nerve cells and targeted the point where the nerve meets the muscle (where degeneration commonly begins). The cells would not become neurons, but release growth factors.
The procedure did not cure the animals of their affliction, but helped slow the disease’s progress and reinstate some muscle function. The team’s argument is that working with what you’ve got left is far easier than starting from scratch and regrowing complex structures using cells that are potentially unwieldy once injected.
“These motor nerve cells have extremely long connections, and replacing these cells is still challenging,” said Masatoshi Suzuki, assistant professor of comparative biosciences at UW. “But we aim to keep the neurons alive and healthy using the same growth factors that the body creates, and that’s what we have shown here.”

neuromorphogenesis:

 Foetal stem cells repair spinal cord injury in rats

A study has been published showing how injecting foetal neural cells into the damaged spinal cords of rats led to a marked regeneration of the neural pathways.

According to a team from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues in the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Slovakia, once cells extracted from the foetal spinal cord were grafted on to the damaged region, links between the injected cells and existing ones developed and debilitating muscle spasms subsided.

“The primary benefits were improvement in the positioning and control of paws during walking tests and suppression of muscle spasticity,” said Martin Marsala, a professor in UC San Diego’s department of Anesthesiology and coauthor on the paper, publishedin the Stem Cell Research and Therapy  journal online. “We have also demonstrated that grafted neurons can develop contacts with the host neurons and, to some extent, restore the connectivity between centres, above and below the injury, which are involved in motor and sensory processing.”

The rats were injured three days prior to treatment, with a circular rod used to compress the L3 vertebra for 15 minutes. Damage to the L3 is associated most commonly with herniated discs and is a hot spot for chronic back pain in humans. Mice that received the graft also received immunosuppressants for the duration (they died two months later, in a “planned sacrifice”) and the grafts were stained with immunofluorescence so it was clear where the original tissue began and ended. The subjects were then monitored for any improvements in movement — noting things like gait and ability to climb ladders — and frequency of muscle spasms during computer-controlled ankle rotations.

Although there wasn’t any improvement of note when it came to things like the ladder climbing test, muscle spasms did significantly subside, normal heat and pain sensitivities returned and the rats appeared to have better control over their paws. Perhaps more significantly, the team came away with physical evidence of the regeneration with MRI scans picking up the immunofluorescent stem cell grafts and showing how they had filled the hole in the spinal region left by the rod damage, with the “development of putative GABA-ergic synapses between grafted and host neurons”. 

Although the study provided significant results, the team ultimately wants to opt-out of using embryonic spinal stem cells. This is not because of the inevitable moral questions that arise from using foetal cells, but because in an ideal world we don’t want to be administering immunosuppressants — the only way of avoiding that is to use cells produced by our own bodies. This could be achieved by using pluripotent stem cells from patients, then turning them into neural precursors. Making sure these cells are stable enough to insert into a human spinal cord is key to the therapy being taken forward, but there are already plans to take the study up a notch with human trials involving patients with injuries between T2 and T12 that have no motor or sensory functions below the injury. It’s also already being done elsewhere in the world.

StemCells Inc has been using human neural stem cells derived from adult tissue — known as HuCNS-SC cells (an engineered cell devised by the company) — in small trials on patients suffering from severe spinal cord injuries. After six months, sensory functions had begun to return in two of the three patients involved in the trial, with those improvements persisting for the duration of the year-long trial.

“Between the six- and 12-month evaluations, one patient converted from a complete to an incomplete injury,” said Armin Curt, professor at the Spinal Cord Injury Centre at Balgrist University Hospital in Zurich, where the trial took place. “While much more clinical research needs to be done to demonstrate efficacy, the types of changes we are observing are unexpected and very encouraging given that these are patients in the chronic stage of complete spinal injury.”  

Unlike the rat study, the Zurich trial is not however a controlled clinical study and took in just those three patients. Nevertheless, the results are astounding and show great promise for using a patient’s own cells one day in the future.

Elsewhere this week, a team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine has announced it has managed to induce improved muscle function in rats with a model of terminal motor neurone disease ALS, using adult stem cells from human bone marrow. The cells were once again engineered to fulfill a specific function — in this case the team wanted them to promote regrowth of damaged nerve cells and targeted the point where the nerve meets the muscle (where degeneration commonly begins). The cells would not become neurons, but release growth factors.

The procedure did not cure the animals of their affliction, but helped slow the disease’s progress and reinstate some muscle function. The team’s argument is that working with what you’ve got left is far easier than starting from scratch and regrowing complex structures using cells that are potentially unwieldy once injected.

“These motor nerve cells have extremely long connections, and replacing these cells is still challenging,” said Masatoshi Suzuki, assistant professor of comparative biosciences at UW. “But we aim to keep the neurons alive and healthy using the same growth factors that the body creates, and that’s what we have shown here.”

8PM
penniesandsense:

Say hello to YARROW \ this is one of my favorite annuals that grows in the garden. Not only is it beautiful, and grow in different colors; it has medicinal uses as well!
(The information below is from all4natural.com)
The yarrow herb, or the Achillea millefolium, is native to Europe and naturalized to the temperate regions of North America as well as other temperate regions.
Yarrow plants have been used for the treatment of external skin wounds for since as far back as at least the ancient Greeks.
Achillea actually refers to the ancient hero Achilles, who is said to have used yarrow for himself and his soldiers. Millefolium, on the other hand, means “of a thousand leaves”  - this refers to the fine, delicate and feathery leaves of the plant.
The yarrow plant is also known as “bloodwort”, “carpenter’s weed”, “common yarrow”, “knight’s milfoil”, “milfoil”, “noble yarrow”, “nosebleed”, “old man’s pepper” and “staunchgrass”.
 Modes of use\
Yarrow flower tops and leaves are the parts of the plant used for medicinal purposes.
Yarrow can be taken as an infusion (yarrow tea) or as a tincture. Yarrow essential oil, extracted from the plant, is also used.
 Medicinal properties and uses of yarrow
Yarrow has the following beneficial properties\
antibiotic anti-inflammatory - due to its oils antiseptic - due to its oils antispasmodic astringent - due to the presence of resins diuretic sedative - a mild one, useful for dealing with mild insomniac conditions
 The yarrow herb also has the following positive effects. helps to improve cardiovascular conditions, partly by regulating blood pressure improves the appetite purifies the blood regulates the menstrual cycle - due to the sterols in yarrow, which function in a similar fashion to hormones repairs damaged or worn out body tissues - due to the presence of silica removes heat and toxins from the body, by increasing sweating stimulates the circulatory system stimulates the flow of bile
 In addition, yarrow helps to deal with the following health conditions. allergies, such as hay fever - helps to alleviate the symptoms chest and respiratory congestion - helps to clear the condition colds and the common flu - provides relief from these conditions, especially when taken hot coughs - provides relief diarrhea and dysentery - astringent quality helps to alleviates these conditions
digestive system - improves digestion and the body’s ability to absorb nutrients
enteritis - anti-inflammatory property helps to alleviate this condition fever - provides relief, especially when taken hot, as it promotes sweating gastritis, stomach ulcers and other gastrointestinal conditions - anti-inflammatory property helps to alleviate these conditions hemorrhoids - helps to heal the condition, as it stimulates blood flow high blood pressure - helps to regulate blood pressure infections - aids healing, due to its anti-inflammatory quality intestinal bleeding - astringent quality helps to alleviate this condition intestinal issues like colic, cramps and flatulence - antispasmodic quality helps to relief these symptoms menstrual conditions, such as heavy menstruation or menstrual bleeding, uterus blockages - provides relief and helps to heal sore throats - provides relief, especially when taken hot
 Externally, the yarrow herb has been used, and is reputedly very effective, for helping to heal bruises, burns, cuts, swelling, ulcers and wounds on the skin or body surface. This is usually carried out using poultices made from the whole plant, yarrow leaves, or powder produced by grinding up dried yarrow tops. Infusions are also used to wash the skin to help deal with skin conditions, for example eczema. In addition, the essential oils of yarrow are sometimes rubbed on affected skin.
In the past, the leaves of the yarrow plant were chewed on to reduce the pain arising from toothaches.
The gas rising from boiling yarrow infusions were also inhaled to alleviate mild asthmatic symptoms.
For its other uses, yarrow oil is sometimes included as part of hair shampoos.
 Caution when using yarrow\
There are no significant side effects noted from the use of the yarrow herb.
However, yarrow should not be used during pregnancy as it may stimulate the uterus.

To find an online source of good quality herbs and herbal products at reasonable prices, click here.

penniesandsense:

Say hello to YARROW \ this is one of my favorite annuals that grows in the garden. Not only is it beautiful, and grow in different colors; it has medicinal uses as well!

(The information below is from all4natural.com)

The yarrow herb, or the Achillea millefolium, is native to Europe and naturalized to the temperate regions of North America as well as other temperate regions.

Yarrow plants have been used for the treatment of external skin wounds for since as far back as at least the ancient Greeks.

Achillea actually refers to the ancient hero Achilles, who is said to have used yarrow for himself and his soldiers. Millefolium, on the other hand, means “of a thousand leaves”
- this refers to the fine, delicate and feathery leaves of the plant.

The yarrow plant is also known as “bloodwort”, “carpenter’s weed”, “common yarrow”, “knight’s milfoil”, “milfoil”, “noble yarrow”, “nosebleed”, “old man’s pepper” and “staunchgrass”.


Modes of use\

Yarrow flower tops and leaves are the parts of the plant used for medicinal purposes.

Yarrow can be taken as an infusion (yarrow tea) or as a tincture. Yarrow essential oil, extracted from the plant, is also used.


Medicinal properties and uses of yarrow

Yarrow has the following beneficial properties\

antibiotic
anti-inflammatory - due to its oils
antiseptic - due to its oils
antispasmodic
astringent - due to the presence of resins
diuretic
sedative - a mild one, useful for dealing with mild insomniac conditions


The yarrow herb also has the following positive effects.
helps to improve cardiovascular conditions, partly by regulating blood pressure
improves the appetite
purifies the blood
regulates the menstrual cycle - due to the sterols in yarrow, which function in a similar fashion to hormones
repairs damaged or worn out body tissues - due to the presence of silica
removes heat and toxins from the body, by increasing sweating
stimulates the circulatory system
stimulates the flow of bile


In addition, yarrow helps to deal with the following health conditions.
allergies, such as hay fever - helps to alleviate the symptoms
chest and respiratory congestion - helps to clear the condition
colds and the common flu - provides relief from these conditions, especially when taken hot
coughs - provides relief
diarrhea and dysentery - astringent quality helps to alleviates these conditions

digestive system - improves digestion and the body’s ability to absorb nutrients

enteritis - anti-inflammatory property helps to alleviate this condition
fever - provides relief, especially when taken hot, as it promotes sweating
gastritis, stomach ulcers and other gastrointestinal conditions - anti-inflammatory property helps to alleviate these conditions
hemorrhoids - helps to heal the condition, as it stimulates blood flow
high blood pressure - helps to regulate blood pressure
infections - aids healing, due to its anti-inflammatory quality
intestinal bleeding - astringent quality helps to alleviate this condition intestinal issues like colic, cramps and flatulence - antispasmodic quality helps to relief these symptoms menstrual conditions, such as heavy menstruation or menstrual bleeding, uterus blockages - provides relief and helps to heal
sore throats - provides relief, especially when taken hot


Externally, the yarrow herb has been used, and is reputedly very effective, for helping to heal bruises, burns, cuts, swelling, ulcers and wounds on the skin or body surface. This is usually carried out using poultices made from the whole plant, yarrow leaves, or powder produced by grinding up dried yarrow tops.
Infusions are also used to wash the skin to help deal with skin conditions, for example eczema. In addition, the essential oils of yarrow are sometimes rubbed on affected skin.

In the past, the leaves of the yarrow plant were chewed on to reduce the pain arising from toothaches.

The gas rising from boiling yarrow infusions were also inhaled to alleviate mild asthmatic symptoms.

For its other uses, yarrow oil is sometimes included as part of hair shampoos.


Caution when using yarrow\

There are no significant side effects noted from the use of the yarrow herb.

However, yarrow should not be used during pregnancy as it may stimulate the uterus.

To find an online source of good quality herbs and herbal products at reasonable prices, click here.

January222013

Rebalancing the karma!

(c) krazyface 

(Different pathways lead to different outcomes)

I am starting to believe in Karma. Here is a related song (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBH97ma9YiI). Here’s a long winded story to explain why:

A few days ago, I saw lots of friends in one day, all of whom are the sort of mates you have to catch because everyone’s so busy. I also chatted to my course mates at the pub, read my own poetry at an event at my uni, did some work, went to see some rap poetry about Shakespeare.

That is, I didn’t do anything particularly naughty or bad, just nice clean fun with friends.



AND THEN I lost my phone on the bus.

I felt a bit bummed out about that. So after the rap gig my friend and I went to get some tea to chat and so I could look through my bag for my phone and feel a bit sorry for myself with cake. Then… the barista in Pret gave me a free coffee because he made an extra one by accident or something.

Free coffee doesn’t quite equal lost phone but hey, that is still quite Karmatic and Amazing.

Later that evening I went home and wrote some poems on teh tube. One of them was about Kindness.

Once I got off the tube, I saw a boy my age in hockey kit, waiting for a bus. And he looked so frozen (it was like -2C at 12am or so), so I felt bad and offered him a lift to his university halls.

After I’d done it, I was like, hey I may have just rebalanced my bad Karma. -1 lost phone +.5 free coffee +1 free lift = +.5 good karma…

Something like that.

I don’t actually know if Karma is a thing, but it’s a nice concept. We should do good things to others to give ourselves good Karma and to alleviate bad Karma. A quick wiki search tells me that Karma means a ‘deed’ which leads to the cause and effect cycle of ‘samsara’. This is an ancient Indian concept, used in Buddhism as well as other religions.

The first person I met at university, on one of the first few days, bought me a coffee. Instead of admitting that he wanted to buy a pretty girl a coffee, he explained that he wanted to because his friend from halls bought him a coffee and the boy in question wanted to spread the good Karma. Truly delightful.

I think I am going to try to do more nice things for others. It is a bit irrelevant about the Karma thing, but if in any way it will make the cold world we live in a bit of a happier place, than that’s cool.




Here is my poem about kindness (called ‘Friend in need is a friend indeed’):

Kindness is..

…when a stranger asks you in Claire’s if you’re OK, when you’re 13 and you think you’ve lost your first bank card

…When another stranger sends you all the cards you lost by post with a note
…When a brother of a friend of a friend returns a pound, after you bought falafel from his stall
…a friend who’ll listen to your midnight ramblings, however stupid those may be
…Boyfriends who carry heavy things for you
…Looking out for drunk girls you’ve just met
…Accepting people’s flaws
…Knowing when to be cruel to be kind

9AM

science-junkie:

Why trees can’t grow taller than 100 metres

TYPICALLY, the taller the tree, the smaller its leaves. The mathematical explanation for this phenomenon, it turns out, also sets a limit on how tall trees can grow.

Kaare Jensen of Harvard University and Maciej Zwieniecki of the University of California, Davis, compared 1925 tree species, with leaves ranging from a few millimetres to over 1 metre long, and found that leaf size varied most in relatively short trees.

Jensen thinks the explanation lies in the plant’s circulatory system. Sugars produced in leaves diffuse through a network of tube-shaped cells called the phloem. Sugars accelerate as they move, so the bigger the leaves the faster they reach the rest of the plant. But the phloem in stems, branches and the trunk acts as a bottleneck. There comes a point when it becomes a waste of energy for leaves to grow any bigger. Tall trees hit this limit when their leaves are still small, because sugars have to move through so much trunk to get to the roots, creating a bigger bottleneck.

Jensen’s equations describing the relationship show that as trees get taller, unusually large or small leaves both cease to be viable (Physical Review Letters, doi.org/j6n). The range of leaf sizes narrows and at around 100 m tall, the upper limit matches the lower limit. Above that, it seems, trees can’t build a viable leaf. Which could explain why California’s tallest redwoods max out at 115.6 m.

Source: New Scientist.
Images: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4

9AM
Put together some photos from 5 years ago of me reflected in a CD in a creative way.

Put together some photos from 5 years ago of me reflected in a CD in a creative way.

9AM
9AM
January42013

Thoughts about writer’s block

At the moment, I can write a lot. That is great because before that I had writing block for a year or so.
I had writing block because I had offended someone in an article (by accident) and also because I had decided I wasn’t good enough to work as a journalist.

However, I took a few chances last year and that helped me to feel more confident. I submitted a newspaper article and a play, and started blogging. I also had a job which required me to think creatively about topics I hadn’t encountered before. Deciding to challenge myself helped me to get back into journalistic endeavours.
It seems that in my case, creative inspiration comes from not being scared and challenges. Once I start challenging myself, I feel able to write more and more as I go. It’s like a word stream – as you remove one stone at a time from the stream’s path, it makes way for more and more water to come through, until you end up with a huge river of words. I am grateful for this and also for feeling like I could be a journalist once again.

I cannot help but wonder, however, what if something rocks my confidence again and I find myself as dry as the metaphorical river of words under the harsh glare of criticism. What will happen to my journalistic aspirations then? How can I maintain a constant flow of inspiration instead of it coming and going, ebbing and flowing?

I do have a few tricks up my sleeve. A learned ability to summarise new and complex information in simple terms helps. Also, knowing one’s audience is useful, as any point you have can be expanded upon and altered to go with the target audience’s perceptions. Lastly, being critical and argumentative about everything, knit-picking and finding controversy when there is little to none is another technique that an experience hack should have up their sleeve just in case writing block strikes.

Sensationalism, critical opinions, following the audience’s wishes and knowing how to dumb down the complicated might be useful ways of keeping the word flow going but they might make for bad journalism.
I think the reader should be given respect by allowing them to figure out the hard topics themselves, as well as trust that they can make up their own mind without being reading articles that are critical in a one-sided way, and also that they don’t need to be talked down to.

In the end, a journalist should strive for balance. One shouldn’t utterly ignore who one is writing for but one should imagine a slightly smarter audience than the average Joe, someone can be trusted with long words and confusing concepts. Similarly, if simplifying and sensationalising, one should have a more critical audience in mind. I think the readers are more likely to enjoy such articles and the journo is more likely to feel less like a ‘sell out’ but instead that they are bringing educational and important messages to the world.

Note: about sensationalism – it is super easy to offend in print, so I suggest that you should only offend and accuse for right reasons.


(c)tumblr

December152012

Memories improved and diminished

 (c)usa today 

Human memory is more amazing than you know. It is how you know who you are. Human memories can last a lifetime and can be of infinite capacity. It is astounding how people will remember very minor facts of their lives with clarity but forget their spouse’s birthday. How and why people forget is also fascinating in a myriad of ways. University provides opportunities for both gaining and acquiring certain memories. Below are examples of the ways that memories can be enhanced and diminished.

1. Alcohol

(c) modernmedicalguide.com

 Korsakoff’s syndrome is an illness caused by severe alcoholism. Symptoms include memory loss, confused memories (gaps in memories are filled in by wrong associations), apathy and lack of insight.

However, interestingly enough, there is a study which showed the positive effects of alcohol on memory. Goodwin and colleagues (1969) showed that if a person hid something when drunk, they found it easier when drunk. Unfortunately, this is an experiment on your physical state, as opposed to suggesting in any way that drinking more will help you remember better. What the experiment shows is that being in the same physical state prompts people to remember.

Suggestion: Drink in moderation (but if you do hide your possessions when drunk, it’ll be easier to find them when drunk again)

2.State/context

 (c) colourbox

As hinted above, being in the same state helps people to remember. Memories are affected by both the internal state and the outside context.

A state-dependent example is provided by a study (Miles and Hardman, 1998) which showed that when people exercised and learnt words at the same time, they remembered the words better if they were exercising (as opposed to resting).

 Context-dependent memories were created in a study (Godden & Baddeley, 1975) which showed that subjects remembered words better underwater, if they’d also learned them underwater.

However, your context or state can also hinder memories. For instance, your context could distract you, making one remember what was learnt in the same context but not newly learned information. Imagine being in an exam and being placed in your usual classroom where you’d learnt various amounts of material. But before the exam you’d crammed new knowledge into your head. The context of the room is going to trigger old facts you’d learnt there but not new facts that are useful for the exam, as you’d learnt them at home.


Suggestion: study and have exams in the same room, drink water when studying and when being examined.

3. Sleep

 (c) guardian

Dedicated students like to stay up all night and sleep in the day. Or just not sleep. And that’s totally cool, part of the lifestyle. Am I right?

Research tells us that sleeping improves memory as memories are consolidated during sleep. Also, different types of sleep enhance different memories. Also, sleep deprivation has a negative effect on remembering, as shown in a study (Polzella, 1975) where recognition was reduced after 24 hours of sleep deprivation but improved after getting enough sleep.

 Suggestion: Get your 7 hours of sleep if you can. If you can’t, have a power nap. It worked for Thatcher, don’t see why it shouldn’t work for students!

4. Coffee

 (c) glamour

Caffeine has been shown to decrease depression (Lucas et al., 2011) and improve retention in rats (Hiroi et al.,2002). However, caffeine also reduces blood flow to the brain (Field et al., 2003).

An interesting study by Yasar et al., (2012) showed that caffeine and weed do not mix. After giving both substances to rats, their memories worsened. The caffeine made the memory-reducing effect of THC in cannabis even stronger.

Suggestion: Drinking a cup of coffee a day is probably all right. Don’t take weed with your cappuccino. Find some rats.

 (c) Guardian

December142012
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